Wednesday, 28 November 2012

Planning - Main AS Task Initial Idea

Hello readers,
 For my main AS task in media which requires the making of a two minute long opening sequence with the inclusion of credits, I will be working with two other people. We have chosen to create an opening sequence within a film that will be of the 'thriller' genre. This is because this enables us to make the most of creating an atmosphere, demonstrating a variety of shot types and exploring utilizing sound and lighting to the best ability.
 Our basic idea is to create an opening scene for a film called 'The Syndrome'; it is about a captive girl suffering from Stockholm Syndrome who consequently is in love with her capturer. The opening sequence will be before this scenario takes place and the girl first finds herself captured; she makes for escape but consequently cannot overpower her captor who takes her hostage again. Therefore, the opening sequence will focus on her escape and her inevitable second capture. I feel this will be a good opening sequence as it will be tense due to her pursuit to escape, and there will be the question of will she make it out, or will her captor pursue her?

 We have been inspired from various sources around this idea of escape and approaches that we may consider taking.
 Firstly, this music video by Written In Waters features a cannibal in pursuit of his 'dinner'. The captor is threatening, not only in his build and aesthetics but also his presence. This could inspire who we decide to cast for our captor. Also, the lighting used is quite atmospheric; a lot of the time making the best out of natural light, and others using artificial light to add effect. The shot types are also really influential and impressionable and editing is smooth and fluent, demonstrating good continuity editing. I feel that the way the captive has been tied up, with his wrist and feet and gagged, will probably be the way we approach tying our captor as she will still be able to make escape in comparison to if she was tied down with chains.

 Our next source of influence is the escape scene of a couple of boys in The Changeling; the boys manage to escape but are pursued by their captor. The lighting is dim and dark; we are thinking of filming ours at a time of day where light will be scarce in order to create atmosphere. This scene may also influence how we choreograph our escape scene, however, instead of the captor going crazy we want him to be calm and confident that he will catch the girl. The shots used in this scene are effective to evoke the feeling of a  quick pace however we plan not to use dialogue in our opening sequence as this will lose the effect of tension and questioning of what will happen.
 Another source which has influenced us in forming our idea is The Blair Witch Project. This is because it is filmed POV and this may be something we include in our shot types by perhaps showing the perspective of the girl once or twice to give the audience an idea of the feelings of fear she is undergoing. Also, location wise we considered the woods as the place for her to be imprisoned as woods can feel like mazes and are normally isolated areas emphasising the idea that there is no hope of escape for her. Woods are also eerie locations that people normally relate to thriller or horror films so this will suit our genre well. Especially when filming in dim light, this location will create the perfect atmosphere that we desire.

 Because we will be including credits we have been influenced by the opening credits in Sleepy Hollow as they are fairly subtle and this is how we desire ours to be so as not to interrupt the tense escape scene that the audience would prefer to follow without disturbance of text over the top.

Brief for Final AS Level Project

Create a two minute long film opening sequence with the inclusion of credits.

Once Upon a Time in The West (1968) Opening Scene Analysis

 Once Upon a Time in The West's opening sequence is renowned as one of the most impressive film beginnings due to the simple effectiveness of it and its demonstration of a variety of shots and it's use of sound throughout.

 In this sequence, we are firstly introduced to three main characters; this helps to create context for the audience. The first is a man with a stern exterior who appears to be not to be bothered about a sticky residue falling from a height onto his boot. The shot to evoke his least fazed expression is a close up onto his face (shown in the picture below) which is dismissive.

  The second character we are introduced to is a sleeping man who is awoken by a fly settled on his face. He is slumped on a chair and blows the fly away proceeding to catch it in the barrel of his gun. This introduces the audience to the characters persona  a cowboy, which seems fitting for the genre of the film. The audience also can infer from the previous character that he also is a cowboy due to his costume. The first credits appear with the action of catching the fly into the gun. This particular character appears a little strange as well, with his lazy eye and his intrigue in listening to the buzzing of the fly in his gun.
The third character we are only briefly introduced to alone, however nearing the end of the sequence we see him in relation to the previous characters as almost a 'gang' of cowboys, all who have status through owning a gun. This particular character is awaiting the arrival of a train, which is significant to the following events in the opening as it brings a foe of there's to invade the local area. 

All the shots to introduce the characters are close up shots which are highly effective because it allows the audience to see the persona reflected in their facial expressions, which increases the audience’s anticipation to see what relation they have to one another and what the following scenes will behold that involve them.

 From the beginning to the end there is continuous sound coming from a simple wind turbine which sets the pace for the scene and adds fluency throughout to show the location is the same and that each scene follows on from one another in a certain space of time; giving a sense of fluency throughout. Other sound effects are also put in place; the buzzing of the fly, dripping from the residue on the ceiling, the train and cocking of the guns. Because there is no dialogue until the end, these particular sounds are emphasised building the atmosphere and tension of what is to come; this tension is also built by the slow pace and the characters waiting for the trains arrival. Because of the slow pace of the sequence, the audiences attention is held as we know something is to come but are unsure when. The cocking of the guns and loading the barrel also indicates that something is to happen, and most likely, a gun showdown. Dialogue is only introduced on the foes arrival, who also introduces music with the playing of a harmonica. This adds an eeriness and represents his confidence and power, as he knows he has time to play the harmonica without defending himself. The playing of the harmonica also draws the audiences attention to him. The power of this particular character is emphasised as he takes the turn of the events in his favour; one of the opposing gang says, 'Looks like we're shy of one horse' with which their lone foe replies, 'You brought two to many'. This signals the start of the gun showdown which has been anticipated by the audience until then. The sounds really makes this sequence so impressionable because it adds tension, emphasis, atmosphere and pace in a simple way that makes it so effective.

 Through the opening sequence, we see a variety of shots used from the close up shots to create context of the characters at the beginning to the low angle shot of the train passing over the tracks. We also see demonstrations of long shots, two/three shots, medium close ups, medium long shots. extreme close ups and more. These variety of shots create interest for the audience as it gives different perspectives and emphasises reaction or expressions of characters and context. These shots are also really interesting and compositional reflecting the exceptional cinematography of the film.
 Examples of shot types:
 Low Angled Shot
 Two/Three shot
Extreme Close Up

Overall, this is worthy of being famous for being one of the most impressionable opening sequences as the pace throughout creates a dramatic build-up which ends with a quick, effective gun showdown which leaves the audience questioning if anyone survived; resulting in the survival of the foe. The audiences attention is held throughout  with the slow pace, the emphasis and tension created by the soundtrack and the impressionable characters who leave the audience wanting to know how they relate and what is their role in the film; ending with their possible deaths in the showdown. The opening also establishes the genre right away, and the shot types used create excitement and interest. 

See the opening sequence here:

Tuesday, 27 November 2012

Preliminary Task Evaluation

How successful was your final sequence? Does it demonstrate the rules of continuity editing?

 In some aspects, where possible we have successively presented continuity editing however due to some difficulties involving various location changes and filming over two days, areas in which continuity editing could have been demonstrated failed. On the other hand, I felt our final sequence was successful due to not only entertaining our audience but by including a variety of shot types, music, effects and video transitions; this enabled the group to develop our skills further to be used in following productions including the final movie opening. We discovered problems with location due to rooms being occupied after filming different takes, and costumes were changed because of filming over the two days and being unprepared. The 180 degree rule was also broken, however, these mistakes have made us realize how assertive you have to be when filming. 

Which aspects of your production (if any) do you think need a rethink?

Due to lacking in preparation beforehand, we were unable to demonstrate continuity editing as effectively as we could have; by changing this we could have ensured the location we chose to film on was available for the period we did film and that costume was kept continuous over the filming period too. This would give a fluent, professional look to the production and a feel of verisimilitude. We also should have rethought the time we had available as we spent more time on the beginning scenes and spent less time on the final scenes creating an untidy, rushed look; to correct this we should have made a time plan.

How similar was your final sequence to your initial storyboard? (Explain reasons for any changes) How could you improve the effectiveness of the planning stage? 

 I felt it was very similar as each shot shown the story board was taken and depicted in our preliminary task. We added a few changes, these being a few extra shots eg. Sam dying at the end against a wall which was not originally planned, and more detail not shown in the storyboard was added into our short film. Although our storyboard was effective in some ways as it did shape our filming and add a faster pace to the filming process, we could have added more detail and perhaps directions of the characters and so on and so forth, so we would already have the characters informed to add a better pace than we experienced.

Overall what practical skills have you developed during your work on the preliminary task?

 I have formed a better understanding of the software FinalCut and experienced the variety of things that can be added during the editing process through this programme such as effects (eg. slow motion), sound and so on. I have also developed my filming skills further and learnt from my mistakes through continuity editing to ensure I rethink this process on my final piece. I also successfully explored directing and performing in a film and revolving scenes around a  storyboard. 

What have the key lessons been that you need to carry forward into your main task?

I need to ensure in my main task that I am well prepared beforehand as this not only adds a faster pace to the filming process but also ensures that the filming which takes place is quality and not test shots that have no composition aspects involved. It also means that locations I will choose to utilize on my final task will be available and they they fit the brief and context of the story. I also need to consider continuity costume wise to ensure a fluent and believable production. I can forward skills I have taken from practicing in the chosen editing software and filming. I also know that it is important to utilize other software too to create interest eg. Soundtrack Pro as this was used to create the music in our preliminary task. To ensure my main task aesthetically appears professional, continuity editing must be considered in the shooting and editing process and the 180 degree rule must not be broken. 

Wednesday, 7 November 2012

Zombieland (2009) Opening Scene Analysis

 The opening begins with a 'fade from black' transition to a canted angle which leads into a long shot of a man characterized as a zombie running towards the camera, proceeding to launch himself onto the man holding the camera and begins to eat him. Over the top of this filming, is a voice over narrative which personally confers with the audience and welcomes them to the 'united states of Zombieland'. This narrative interacts with the audience to invite them to continue to watch the film and also sets up the context of the film; America no longer exists without people now it is plagued with zombies. Straight away, in this shot, the feel of the film to continue is introduced and the genre is clear; what at first could appear as a horror is actually a comedy (emphasized by the zombie burping comically). This may surprise the audience which is effective as it withholds their attention as the opening leads to the next cut due to the feel of the film being less than standard. The opening, as well as being a long shot, is also a hand held shot. We get a point of view perspective through the characters eyes as they are filming what they are seeing. This is effective as it increases the feel of fear as the zombie makes attack. With the hand held shot, we also get a wider perspective of the surroundings of destruction; the destroyed NYPD car reflects the strength of the zombies against an armed force and also contributes to the contextual idea of the end of a safe human race which is now taken over by zombies. As well as the narrative being placed over the footage, there is also music used to create an atmosphere and add more depth and drama to the opening to reel in the attention of the viewer. The music is significant because it is the American anthem in guitar; suggesting America has become an edgier place now it is ridden with plagues of Zombies.

 The next cut is an establishing shot which zooms out from the previous cut to view Earth from space. It is covered in cracks and fire; implying the devastation that has caused wrath upon the world from the break out of Zombies. The voice over from the previous cut continues into this clip creating a sound bridge. The narrator adds a comedic touch (describing things as being a 'total shitstorm') which, although the sound is non-diagetic, begins to introduce the main character to the audience and create a likeability about them. The camera then zooms back down onto Earth to continue into the next cut; the narrator begins to guide the audience through his rules of survival. This particular cut ends when the next clip begins with a stereotypical obese man running through a sports stadium (ironically) by a zombie. The establishing shot of the world would have been created using CGI; making the best of a Hollywood budget by using high quality new media technology.

 The following cut begins on a long shot; showing the obese man and zombie in the surroundings of the sports stadium. This shows the interaction between the two characters with the zombie chasing the man in hope of eating him. Over the top of the footage is text which would have been placed over during the editing process.  The text says 'Rule # 1: Cardio' which relates to the introduction of the main characters rules. The text is in white and green which matches the colour of the sports stadium field; this reflects that colour design has been considered. Slow motion is used as the characters are running creating a comical touch with the medium close up onto the 'fatty' as he screams. The slow motion ends as the zombie attacks the man onto the floor and begins to eat him which emphasises the pace of the zombies and the fast pace of the film. The voice over continues and again interacts with the audience as he commentates on the zombie attack with the words 'poor fat bastard'. This would evoke laughter from the audience which again increases the likeability of the character talking off-screen.

The next cut is of two cars colliding in an urban landscape with ambient sound of voices and traffic to establish the scene and environment. The scene is chaotic as cars are driven manically and zombies appear from everywhere. The camera follows one zombie dressed in uniform which is almost ironic increasing the comedic feel of this opening scene; the zombie attempts attack on an armed woman who consequently shoots him down, however, he manages to attack her after she does not follow the rule of 'double tap'. This rule, like the previous, is also shown in text over the video footage. The text is in the colours white and yellow this time; again reflecting the detail of this opening scene as colour design has been considered, matching the white and yellow to the amber traffic light and white lines on the roads. The text follows behind the zombie and when he is shot, blood splatters onto the letters (this reflects that the Hollywood budget has been invested into CGI use to add more interest). A lot of various shot types are used in this particular cut using short takes to add a quicker pace and more interest for the viewer (if there was not a lot of shot types used the perspective would stay the same and this would  lose interest from the viewers). The lighting in this scene is fairly low key but uses natural light and the weather is dreary, making use of pathetic fallacy to emphasizes the apocalyptic situation to hand. The sound bridge also continues through this scene and adds comedic value through the narrator commenting on the ladies fate as 'becoming a human happy meal'.

 The following clip is of an average guy 'taking a dumper' in an unclean and grim bathroom (the uncleanliness and grim feel to the bathroom is heightened through the obvious use of set design but also though low key lighting). The camera shows the character as it moves over the top of the cubicle and settles into a high angled shot creating an invasive feel and adds to the tension of what the audience knows is to come; another zombie attack. The camera then moves into a medium close up as the man notices the zombie crawling under the cubicle and then cuts to show the zombie, then finally cutting back to create a reaction shot of the man realizing his fate as the zombie attacks. As the camera moves out of the cubicle, the text of the third rule is then shown; 'Rule #3: Beware of Bathrooms'. As done before, the colour design has been considered in the text as the red text blends with the blood and the larger, bolder text is the same colour as the bathroom interior. This creates a professional look as the text references the particular clip so it doesn't look haphazard and random. The narrative voice over still continues as a sound bridge into this scene so the audience starts to become attached to the main character which again ensures that the viewers attention is kept so intrigue to continue watching is ensured.

 The fifth scene is of a stereotypical American mum making an hasty escape from zombie children ironically dressed up as princesses. However, in her emotional state and panic she forgets to fasten her seat belt resulting in her flying out the windscreen and making a collision with the road. The scene begins with the shot taken in the car which is a close up firstly on the woman's shaky hands struggling to start the car up with the keys and then a medium close up which shows her screaming reaction. The  The shot type then changes to a long shot which shows the suburban house with a bouncy castle outside and the children crowding around the car. The clip then cuts back into the car and once again shows the woman hastily closing the window as zombies try to pursue her by smacking bloody hands on the glass. The woman then manages to drive off, and the camera shows the boot of the car which zombie girls hang from, desperate to reach the meat, and ironically has a sign on reading 'My kid is an honor student'. This adds to the comedy of the opening and again reestablishes the comedy genre of the movie. When the car crashes and the woman fly's out, slow motion has been used through editing to emphasize the reaction of the woman. As she slides across the wood with a trail of blood behind, the shot is high angled. This is when the text reading 'Rule #4: Seatbelts' appears, once again matching the surrounding colour scheme. Again, as in the other scene, the comedic sound bridge narrative continues, building the audiences relationship with the main character.

 Between the previous cut and the following cut, an obvious 'fade to black' transition is used, creating a divide between the introduction scenes and the opening credits. All of the 15 clips during the opening credits make use of slow motion and each cut super imposes upon one another making a smooth linking transition between each. The opening credits are exciting because the people interact with the credits eg. the first clip shows a man falling and his hand hits a letter causing it to move. This makes it feel as if the credits are part of the actual scenes, adding a realism feel. Irony is continued through these clips as in one a man claims that 'the end is near' whilst being pursued by a crowd of zombies; again reestablishing the comedy genre to be expected of the film. The slow motion editing also emphasizes the scenarios of each clips and the reactions which again, increases the comedy. The credits font is bold and in red suggesting relation to the colour of blood and fitting to the theme. There is a sound track over the top of this which is heavy metal music relating to the 'hardcore' gore and edginess of the film; adding a different feel to the standard zombie or comedy film. Because there are a lot of clips shown in this opening credits sequence it is montage editing; the process of compiling short shots into a sequence to condense space, time and information. The composition of each of the clips are quite dramatic with lots of special effects such as fire, gore and more. It is obvious there has been a lot of money invested into the making of the film as they could afford to a make a really dramatic and exciting opening sequence.

 Overall, I think this has to be one of my all time favourite film openings as even though the short duration of it is 4:31 minutes, so much goes on such as introducing the survival rules, having the opening credits, setting up the genre and context and more. Also, a lot of clever editing techniques and shot types have been used to add interest to the film and a lot of exciting set design and composition is involved as well. I will be referring this when developing ideas for my film opening.

Friday, 2 November 2012

Preliminary Task Storyboard

Hello readers,
To further explore skills and begin to understand and practice continuity editing to a further extent, we were set a task to create a very short film making use of continuity editing. Continuity editing is ensuring each clip smoothly follows on from the other and creates a feel of realism. For example, if in one cut a character wears a hat, yet in the next cut is wearing no hat this is a bad example of continuity editing and creates a non realistic and unprofessional feel. This means continuity editing is something really important to consider - especially for our initial task to create a film opening. In a group of three, we created an idea for our preliminary task which will have a comedic feel. The basis of the story line is that a guy is going on a date which little does he know is with a really unattractive girl (who is slightly obsessed with him!). On arrival, the guy realizes who his date is and, embarrassed, makes his way over to the table where he is immediately questioned on his arrival.  He swiftly makes for escape, but his date drastically murders him! We hope to ensure smooth continuity editing is achieved throughout.

Children of Men (2006) Opening Scene Analysis

(Study opening sequence of 0:00 to 3:04)
The story begins in future London during the year 2027, however, the opening also represents life not just locally but globally; this is shown through the news report at the opening featuring Seattle (a state in the Americas situated far away from the UK). From the beginning, the audience is immediately introduced to the collapse of the world through the news report aired in a coffee shop in central London. The future of the world is represented through this news report as the audience is introduced to the issue of infertility worldwide (infected on a universal scale for 18 years), sieges in Seattle, armies occupying mosques, 8 years of lost borderline controls and continuation of deportation of illegal immigrants. London is represented through this influence of immigration through the use of Tuk Tuk vehicles on the road (commonly used in Asia). The world is represented as having a collapsed state and government and undergoing a turmoil of destruction; portrayed through the bombing of the coffee shop. This representation of the future world is wholly negative; with no hope of curing the infertility of the current generation there is no hope of future generations to continue human life. The negativity of the current affairs is also reflected through the cinematography and atmosphere; the dark colours (pathetic fallacy), crying from other characters (general public) and destruction all contribute to the negative representational aspect of the opening sequence.

 We are introduced to a male at the beginning who is the main character being represented; we know this as the camera follows him from the coffee shop upon exit using a long take, and then cuts to him in his work place. This opening could establish his ability to be a 'hero' and foreshadow the events for the man as a character as unlike everyone else in the coffee shop he appears apparent to have little interest in the death of the youngest human on earth since the start of infertility for the human race. The audience can see this as he makes his way through a crowd shaken from hearing about Diego's (the youngest humans) death, apparently ignorant and upon receiving his coffee he leaves unlike the rest of the crowd who are drawn to the television to hear more about the news of the death. This could represent his character as being different from the rest of the public and stronger; a quality that could be used to become a 'hero'. He also escapes the coffee shop just before it explodes pursuing this 'hero' idea as he escaped a devastating fate due to a character of luck and fortune, reestablishing the idea that he is unusual compared to others.  Despite having perhaps possibly the physique of a hero, the character is fairly normal which conflicts with the typical stereotype of a hero. Although the character at first appears to have a fairly hard exterior during the receiving of the news in relation to the death of baby Diego, we later see he is so moved by the bombing and the death he is excused from work for the day. This also conflicts with the idea of the character not being a typical 'hero' as he is obviously easily affected and not as strong and emotionally inapt as a normal hero. This could appeal to the audience and intrigue as the character raises questions for the audience that desire to be answered by continuing to watch the film.

 Woman have endured 18 years of infertility, representing them now as having no use to current society without the ability to reproduce and continue the cycle of human life. The inability to reproduce is  represented through the repeated announcements which are broadcast through the news, concerning the infertility of the present state. This may be why the most effected people seem to be woman, as they are now facing the prospect of having no use to mankind.

 The future is represented as being a place of destruction and collapsed society; this is shown through the news broadcasts and the events shown in the opening scene. The audience straight away are introduced to this representation through the news report of the current affairs, the bombing, strict security regulations (shown when the main character enters his work place) and the melancholy touch to the atmosphere during the opening through expression of emotions in characters. The audience knows the film is set in the future as text is shown over the opening clip announcing the present date (16th November 2027) to add context to the film. Despite the film being set 15 years from now, technology has not hugely advanced; screens have become thinner and buildings are more adorned with monitors, however transport is dated (Tuk Tuk's and recognizable London red buses). This advances the idea further that the world has experienced great turmoil and collapse as the ability to advance has been withheld. 

 It is apparent throughout the opening scene that there is a great ageing population due to the infertility endurance and this is represented through the characters shown besides the main character; all generally middle aged. The population also seems to be generally middle class which is perhaps due to the fact that there are more jobs available due to the lack of a younger generation and access to a larger economy. This representation is reflected through the aesthetics of the people and behavior which is obviously in juxtaposition to the destruction and drastic events taking place alongside.

Media Language
 The lighting throughout the opening is dim and fairly low-key yet natural. This establishes the mood and atmosphere to be expected during the film, as the issues risen in the opening are unsettling and melancholic, so therefore the lightening further establishes this. Even the clothing worn is dark reflecting ideas of mourning and depression. The weather in the opening sequence is overcast using 'pathetic fallacy' to re-illiterate the mood set up to imply to the audience and foreshadow following events.

 The camera work almost in some parts (just before the bomb explodes) carries a feel of being filmed using a hand-held camera shot due to the long takes and not complete steadiness, however, this varies through the sequence. The filming would have been done on a Steadicam to achieve the feel of this. Despite this, expectations of a normal feature film are exceeded due to the greater perspective the audience is allowed than the majority of films through the use of long takes in comparison to short cuts. Long takes allow the audience to see how events evolve straight after others with no spaces in between. A wide range of camera shots are used throughout the opening sequence which keeps the audience interested and the pace of the opening quick. At the beginning, the scene opens up using a 'medium close-up' shot; this shows the crowd from shoulders up; this allows the audience to clearly see the reactions of the people when being informed of the news. The next shot is a 'low angle shot' looking up at the screen as if from the perspective of the people, allowing the audience to relate to what the characters are seeing. The next shot is a 'long take' which follows the main character out of the coffee shop, pans around the environment outside to establish the scenery and then focuses on the bomb exploding and the main characters reaction. This long take lasts 52 seconds which is a very long take. The effect of this is that the audience can get the whole idea of how the events took place and the reaction of the devastation caused. The next shot is 'wide angle' and pans around to follow the man walking into his workplace. The following shot is again a 'long take', followed through by a 'medium close-up' reaction shot of a woman colleagues receiving of the news of baby Diego's death  and then a 'wide angled shot' which follows the exit of the main character. The next shots are 'medium close-ups' to illustrate a conversation between the main character and his boss.

 Obvious editing used in the opening sequence is placing text over footage (London, 16th November 2027) and running a sound bridge over the opening  credits. Also, a title has been edited in between cuts. By adding text, credits and a title, the audience is given information that is necessary to receive; whether in relation to the film context or the production. Continuity editing has been acknowledged as all cuts interlock with one another and follow through continuously. Also, clips have been cut which speeds up the pace of the opening. There are not many apparent transitions used however by having subtle transitions between clips there is no waiting or pauses - just a continuous smooth transition from cut to cut.

 There is ambient sound throughout the opening sequence eg. traffic noise, crying which creates the atmosphere essential to create realism to the situation. There is also a sound bridge at the beginning which is spread over the opening credits to the first cuts which gently introduces the context to the audience without it being a great shock revealed in one clip. There is also conversation throughout between the main character requesting coffee and then between his boss and himself. By having less conversing of dialogue at the beginning, the clip lets the news report and the sound effects create a more dramatic, realistic feel. Also, the silence of the crowd echoes the speechless reactions.

 The locations are created as being very typical but at the same time have a little twist to give an insight into the change that has occurred from the present to 2027. For instance, we recognize that the first location is London; reflected through the renowned red London buses and skyscrapers, however there is a twist with the use of Tuk Tuk's on the road. This suggests to the audience thing's have changed quite a lot from the current times that we live in; possible influence from rise in immigration. Also the work place is typical; desks lined up, yet there is an update in technology with hi-tech computer screens replacing what we would expect to see as computers on a desk. All of this represents change in the future.

 I feel that the genres involved are Action/Adventure and Drama. This is because there is action through the use of explosions and destruction (the bombing) and there is drama through the use of emotions and the story line behind the film. There is foreshadowing that there is more action to be expected because things can only get worse due to the turmoil of the world. This is a good mix of genres as it ensures the film to be quick paced, bold and exciting.

 The film opening sequence succeeds what I feel a typical film opening should include; context, opening credits, introduction to character, title and suspense leaving the audience to carry on watching. The narrative aspect of the opening sequence is the news report as it gives this essential context to the audience. Without the co text it is harder to get into a film and takes more time for a film to start properly so this narrative context used in this particular opening sequence is essential. Normally a narrative will appear once in a film opening however the news report is repeated throughout, reinforcing the audience with the context and unsettling current circumstances.

 I feel that the film would appeal to adults and young adults of all genders who are interested in politics, action/drama films or the future. The film itself has a certificate 15, so therefore ages up would be interested in this film. Already, in the opening sequence, the film jumps straight into action and an exciting storyline/context which enthrals the audience and withholds the watchers interest.

Values and Ideologies
 As the main storyline is this idea of infertility and the end to the human race, the film makers may want to pursue the idea of living life to the full because the hope of future generations could end at any point; this is shown in Children of Men. The film makers may want to get across this idea that life is precious and should be valued to allow future generations to thrive as well. Because the world has collapsed (which could be due to numerous reasons) we should all come together to ensure the world continues to thrive and be a safe place. We can gather this information from the opening sequence because life has become destructive globally due to social issues and loss of hope.

 Universal Pictures is one of the six major movie studios which means the content in the film will universally appeal. It also means that the film can be globally distributed, backed by a bigger fund and able to produce a more expensive film; global locations, special fx, movie stars etc. Universal Pictures are able to fund more advertising and ancillary products to pursue the films ability to receive global interest, critical acclaim and profit.

 The posters are generally hard/dark colours reflecting the general mood to the film. The posters are quite masculine so this could reflect the target audience; features the main character who is male, bold font and dark colours. The genre of Action is clearly represented in each of these posters; broken glass reflects some sort of destruction, scars on the male characters face and this idea of 'hero' - 'he must protect our only hope'.   There is a narrative structure introduced by laying out the context on the poster for the reader to view and be intrigued to go and see the film; 'In 20 years, women are infertile, no children, no future, no hope, but all that can change in a heartbeat.' This withholds the audiences attention and leaves them questioning about the film. The film may contain ideas to value life, 'all that can change in a heartbeat' - if one heartbeat is precious then every heartbeat should be. Women may be represented as weak in the film as now they are infertile they don't stand a chance against the strong men that 'our only hope'. Overall, these are effective film posters as they sell the film well and intrigue the reader to go and pay to see the film or purchase it.

Three Effective Opening Sequences